CBD 101: Everything You Need to Know

Chances are you've heard about Cannabidiol, also known as CBD. In fact, you've probably heard a lot about it. But let's take a closer look at why everyone is talking about this compound.

For decades, the cannabinoid compound THC has taken all the glory. Studies frequently focused on THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, as it is responsible for getting us high. Though THC isn't the only compound within cannabis. In fact, it's just one of over a hundred different cannabinoids which each have their own function. Though one compound has recently emerged on the tip of everyone's tongues; CBD.

CBD, or cannabidiol, has cropped up recently as a major contender in the health & wellness industries, assisting with seizures, chronic pain, insomnia, anxiety, anorexia and a long list of other ailments.

Though what exactly is it about CBD that works so well? We decided to find out.

What is CBD?

CBD stands for Cannabidiol and is one of the active compounds found within the cannabis plant alongside THC – Tetrahydrocannabidiol.

Unlike THC however, CBD has no psychoactive effects, therefore you won't get feel stoned from consuming it.

CBD can be derived from both the marijuana and hemp plant, though typically CBD will be extracted in the form of oil from hemp plants, as there is less THC and more CBD in hemp – to put it simply: more healing, less high.

The two most common ways to extract CBD from a Hemp plant are Ethanol and CO2 Extraction explained in more depth here.

Once extracted, the CBD is often then sold in various forms. Whether it be oils, vapes, edibles or creams, there's a way to consume CBD for everyone.

THC CBD Cannabis Industry

How does it work in our body?

A little known fact about the processing of CBD in the body is that it works by interacting with the cannabinoid receptors which naturally occur within the human body.

The Human body naturally produces cannabinoid receptors known as our Endogenous cannabinoid System – ECS for short.

In charge of our sleep patterns, how we regulate pain and how well our immune system functions, our ECS plays a large role in our daily life and can be split into two main receptors: CB1 and CB2.

CB1 receptors coordinate many of our day-to-day functions such as appetite, sleep, how we feel, our ability to remember and how we process pain.

CB2 Receptors, on the other hand, focus mostly on our immune & nervous systems.

While CBD doesn't bind with these receptors, it can influence them by activating certain receptors and inhibiting others, which in turn can create certain desirable experiences within the body.

THC CBD Cannabis Industry

How is it taken & What does it do?

Cannabis has been used as a medicine for thousands for years, so it's no surprise CBD has its benefits. In fact, as both the anecdotal and clinical evidence piles up, it seems there's almost no problem that a bit of CBD can't fix.

Though there are many ways to skin a cat and many ways to ingest CBD.

You can consume CBD in the form of gummies, tinctures or oils, you can smoke it, wear it as a topical or even buy CBD Patches. Each method of ingestion will lead to slightly different results so it's worth doing a bit of research to find out which method suits you.

Below we've listed some of the benefits to CBD use.

Opioid THC CBD Cannabis Industry

Pain & Addiction

Pain is the leading reported health issue worldwide, listed as the number one reason for Australians and Americans to seek medical assistance.

Typically, those who experience chronic pain are prescribed pharmaceutical painkillers, which can have their own unwanted side effects. One of the most prevalent negative side effects of painkillers, specifically opioids, is addiction.

In America, over 2 million people are addicted to prescription painkillers, leading to over 100 deaths a day. Australia is beginning to see similar issues arising, with the deaths from opiates almost doubling in the past decade.

CBD, on the other hand, has been found to mitigate chronic pain with fewer of the harmful side effects found from opiate use.

Studies in rats have shown that CBD effectively causes analgesia – pain relief – by interacting with several proteins in our Endo-cannabinol System.

And because CBD doesn't activate our endocannabinoid receptors directly, the chances of habit-formation or addiction are much less likely.

The anti-addictive properties of CBD were summarised in a report by the World Health Organisation which found that "CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential."

Pretty neat, huh?

Studies like this show the potential for CBD-based therapies to replace or assist existing pain treatments, which in turn may lead to a decrease in substance abuse.

In fact, CBD works so well for pain relief that many athletes are now turning to the substance to help them recover from injuries.

THC CBD Cannabis Industry

Anxiety & Insomnia

Alongside chronic pain, anxiety is becoming a rising issue in the modern world.

Listed in many countries as the leading cause of mental illness, the World Health Organisation estimates that globally 264 million are suffering from an anxiety disorder, up 15% from the previous decade.

In America, anxiety disorders affect 1 in 5 people, and Australia has more than 2 million suffering from anxiety.

Typically anxiety is treated through therapy, coupled with prescriptions of anti-depressant drugs such as Xanax of Diazepam.

Studies show, however, that those with anxiety tend to suffer for years before attending therapy.

And without therapy, those suffering from anxiety are left with no choice but to take anti-anxiety drugs, which aren't much of a sure-fire solution themselves.

50% of all anxiety sufferers who take anxiety medication report experiencing no benefits at all, and much like pain medication, anti-anxiety drugs can often lead to addiction.

Meanwhile, studies involving CBD have shown that the substance has considerable anxiolytic effects, reducing symptoms of anxiety, with others showing that CBD actually changes the way the brain responds to anxiety.

Those who suffer from anxiety can often suffer from insomnia too, which is another area CBD can help.

Those with chronic insomnia found a 66% improvement in their sleep after just one month of CBD use.

THC CBD Cannabis Industry

Epilepsy

Some of the greatest interest surrounding CBD revolves around its ability to alleviate symptoms of epilepsy, specifically among children.

Approximately 3% of Australians will suffer from epilepsy, with children comprising a majority of that percentage.

Current medication for epilepsy has a 70% success rate, which also means that nearly one in three people won't respond to the medication.

CBD is showing a lot of potential when it comes to treating epilepsy, specifically in the rarer cases of childhood-onset epilepsy.

Increasingly we're seeing CBD products hit the market which is having great effectiveness at improving epilepsy symptoms, such as MGC Pharmaceuticals CannEpil hitting the UK market, and GW Pharma's Epidiolex, a product which has achieved a 48% reduction in seizures.

Cancer

Now we're not saying that CBD can cure cancer, but… some studies have shown CBD to have pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions in different types of tumours – simply put, CBD has been shown to prohibit the growth and spread of certain types of cancer.

Not only this, but many cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy will turn to the relaxing effects of CBD to relieve the negative physical effects of chemo.

Acne

At an annual value of $1 Billion per year in the United States alone, acne is one of the most common skin conditions faced by individuals.

Recent studies on CBD as a viable acne solution have found that CBD can significantly decrease ones sebum levels.

Using a cream made of 3% Cannabis seeds for 12 weeks, participants found their sebum levels (the substance that produces pimples & cysts) safely and significantly decreased.

CBD is now increasingly popping up in the Acne & Skincare industry as a result.

THC CBD Cannabis Industry

Hair Care

For many of the same reasons that CBD may be effective in treating acne, it may also help promote healthy hair and prevent baldness.

A healthy scalp often requires healthy levels of sebum, as too much sebum can lead to issues like psoriasis, dermatitis, dandruff, and even baldness. Early studies have shown that CBD use can help regulate sebum levels, which may suggest that CBD could play a powerful role in keeping hair looking healthy and full.

This concept of using CBD for haircare is extensively covered in a comprehensive post found here.

Pet CBD Cannabis Industry

Animals

You might be surprised to hear that CBD is great for pets too, with many companies now releasing canine-specific CBD ranges such as Charlotte's Web.

The reason for this is that both cats and dogs have their own endogenous cannabinoid system, or ECS like we do.

Dogs that suffer from any of the above issues such as seizures, anxiety, arthritis, cancer or lack of appetite can be given hemp-based or CBD-based snacks and feel an improvement in their symptoms.

Wellness CBD Cannabis Industry

Wellness

Wellness has become the third wheel to the Recreational and Medical Cannabis Markets, and CBD is the buzz-word of Wellness.

CBD works excellently as a pharmaceutical cure for many of our ailments, though to enter the pharmaceutical field, companies have many hurdles to overcome.

Research, development and clinical studies are needed for validation and entrance into the Medical market, which simply isn't viable for all who wish to create CBD products.

As as result, many companies are entering the CBD market in a different way – Through the Wellness Industry.

The Wellness Industry now sits at three times the size of the pharmaceutical industry, and while there may not be a wealth of research to back up many of the products within this industry, that's not to suggest the products don't work.

Brightfield estimates the US CBD wellness industry will be valued at an enormous $22 Billion by 2022 – And with the amount of new players entering the CBD-wellness game, it's no surprise.

Charlotte's Web has released skin creams, balms and CBD for dogs, and athletes are turning to Hemp-based CBD protein to reduce inflammation and fatigue after their exercises.

We also wrote an article last year on Elixinol, a global producer of hemp CBD-based dietary & skincare products.

And most recently Green Growth Brands have partnered with Abercrombie and Fitch to release their CBD bath-bomb range.

Despite a lack of clinical research in the Wellness sector of the cannabis industry, we're seeing more and more companies crop up with CBD-based wellness products which may suggest the proof is in the pudding.

Pete Evans THC CBD Cannabis Industry

Advocates

As CBD becomes legal in an increasing number of countries and states, clinical studies become more accessible and the benefits become more concrete.

On top of this, high-profile companies and individuals are helping shed light on the amazing compound that is CBD.

from Australian chef Pete Evans infusing CBD into his cooking, to Michael J. Fox using CBD to alleviate the symptoms of his Parkinsons.

You can also check out our exclusive interview with Zelda Therapeutics, one of Australia's leading pioneers when it comes to CBD research.

Although it's early days, it looks like CBD may be the magic pill that actually works.

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Louis O'Neill
Louis O'Neill

Louis is a writer based in Sydney with a focus on social and political issues. Having interviewed local politicians and entrepreneurs, Louis now focuses on cannabis culture, legislation & reform.

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